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Alexandre Yersin
sadfasHome > Da Lat City > Agriculture
Agriculture 

1. The Development Of Dalat Agriculture Through Some Periods

1.1 Before 1945

The French paid attention to agricultural production during the first years of the conversion of waste lands into cultivated lands.

The first agricultural station established in 1897, with 16.67 square hectare in area in Dankia was controlled by Mr. Jacquet. This station planted many kinds of temperate vegetables, and fruits such as: asparagus, lettuce, potatoes, cabbage, broccoli, artichoke, strawberries, beans, onions, industrial crops, fruit trees like pears, peaches and so on; and a lot of kinds of flowers like roses, Dahlia, carnations, violets, marguerite, etc.

It was not until 1925 that local people in Dalat started to plant vegetables on some hectares.

Around the year 1927 - 1928, Mr. Nguyen Thai Hien moved to Dalat to work as a civil supervisor. When discovering that Nguyễn Thái Hiến graduated from Tuyen Quang School of Farming, Dalat Ambassador gave him some seeds of flowers and vegetables from France and asked him to plant them in the Ambassador's garden. In the end of 1930s, Nguyễn Thái Hiến came back to Nghệ An Province to take his close relatives to Dalat to live. They reclaimed the wild forest, planted a lot of vegetables, artichokes, flowers, plums, peaches and so on at Tan Lac Village.

On 31st May 1938, Mr. Hoang Trọng Phu took 33 citizens from Ha Đong to Dalat City and formed Ha Đong Village, which marked an important milestone in the development of Dalat’s agriculture. From 1939 to 1942, Ha Đong Village reclaimed 12 square hectares in agricultural land, produced 120 tons of vegetables of all kinds.

In 1940, Nghe An and Ha Tinh citizens, who settled down in Dalat, established Nghe Tinh Village. Here is also one of the earliest areas producing vegetables in Da Lat City.

From 1942 to 1945, other agriculture lands called Kilometer 4th area and Kilometer 6th area were continued to be formed (now called Đa Thanh Area).

From 1948, Dalat’s citizens knew how to apply the scientific methods in cultivation, using artificial fertilizers, pesticides, and water pumps. Thanks to using water pumps, the areas planting vegetables increased rapidly because the highland areas could also be watered.

In 1952, Anh Sang Village was established, then came Vạn Thanh, Da Cat Village These villages contributed to the expansion of the agriculture production area of DaLat City.

In 1953, after satisfying local needs, Dalat supplied for the market 6,000 tons of vegetables. The areas Dalat citizens used for planting vegetables were up to 360 hectare. Planting vegetables was developing and supported more than 3,000 families in 10 residential areas of DaLat.

1.2 From 1945-1975

From 1954 onwards, it was the period of the development of cultivating vegetables and flowers in Da Lat when there were a number of people migrating from the North and Central of Vietnam to Dalat to settle down.

In 1955, due to some political and social changes, the consumption of vegetables from Dalat began to decrease.

In 1956, a contest of vegetables and flowers from Dalat was held to introduce the results of applying agronomic techniques on farming and encourage the agricultural development.

In 1956, Da Thien Village was established and became a rich and important agricultural production area of Dalat.

On 23rd January, 1958, Dalat vegetable cooperative was established under Decision No. 144-BKT/HTX and Decision dated 11st February, 1958 of the Ministry of Economy, which later was amended by Decision No. 38-TV/QĐ dated on 10th September, 1959 of the General Government Committee and the Agricultural Credit Cooperatives.

The vegetable cooperative was formed in order to protect the rights of growers, decide on the price of vegetables, supply agricultural materials and eliminate commercial middlemen.

In 1958, 37.1% of Dalat’s population lived on agricultural occupation.

On 21st November, 1958, Dalat first exported 59 tons of vegetables to Singapore.

In 1959, the Dalat Center for Experimental Vegetables and Flowers was established to survey and select the imported varieties of vegetable, flowers, fruit trees, and so on, which could be planted in Dalat and conduct research on farming techniques, apply agricultural and farming tools, fertilizers, pesticides,... on agriculture. The operation of this unit provided many new high quality varieties of vegetables for farming sector. The variety of vegetables such as potatoes, onions, leeks,... had been produced in Dalat.

In 1960, vegetables production supplying for market was up to 13,000 tons and increased up to 27,352 tons in 1968 with 639.35 hectare of land used to grow vegetables.

In 1969, Dalat had 3,202 families living in horticultural cultivation (making up 26% of the population).

1.3 After 1975

In 1975, Dalat agricultural production moved to a new method of production.

Before 1980, vegetables accounted for a large proportion of the total cultivated areas. After 1980, due to the limited equipment and facility, the areas of vegetable production dropped by half. The 2,454-ha-cultivated area of vegetables in 1977 decreased to 1,422 ha in 1981. Since 1982, the cultivated area of vegetables increased but not significantly. In contrast, the area cultivated areas of perennial crops increased rapidly, especially coffee trees.

In 1986-1995, agricultural production in Da Lat had some new shifts. Planning and developing the agriculture and forestry sectors which was conducted have built the foundation for the development of agriculture in Da Lat.

In 1994, the total output value of agriculture sectors reached 88.5 billion dong, which accounted for 71.7 billion dong of cultivation and 16.8 billion dong of breeding.

In five years 1990-1995, materials supplied for agriculture sector were quite sufficient and diverse about category, infrastructure such as electricity, irrigation, rural traffic facilitated to make the agriculture develop. Besides, applying science and technique was promoted and some varieties of vegetables which had been taken into application brought in high values.

In this time, some foreign companies invested to agricultural production in Da Lat such as Biological organic company, DAP company, Agriculture products company, etc. In 1994, Da Lat exported 4000 tons of vegetables to many Asian countries.

Since 1996, agriculture and forestry sectors in Da Lat has developed with annual growth rate of above 10% and product value accounted for 18% GDP.

In 1997, planning of agricultural development in Da Lat in period 1998-2010 was conducted based on evaluation the result of ten year implementing innovation policy. The cultivation developed by all three directions: expanding area, increasing service and increasing productivity and product quality.

At the end of 2000, the short-term crop cultivated area on agriculture land in Da Lat increased by 141% compared with 1996. The technical advances of vegetables production in the line with synthesis agriculture, using new varieties which had characteristic resistance to pest and applying proper fertilizer regimes and Integrated Pest Management measures (IPM) had made productivity and product quality increase. In 1996-2000, every years the vegetables area in Da Lat exported to countries in the region which accounted for 10% of yield.

In the flower growing field, in 2001, cut flowers area reached 508 ha with 147 million branches in yield.

SITUATION OF PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES AND FLOWERS

(1996-2005)

Year

Planting vegetables area (ha)

Yield (tons)

Planting cut flowers area (ha)

Yield (tons)

1996

3.902

82.448

174

26

1997

4.819

102.670

242

38

1998

4.984

107.041

253

46

1999

5.231

118.450

286

58

2000

5.520

143.520

453

113

2001

7.810

187.400

508

147

2002

7.638

183.300

630

183

2003

8.490

203.800

788

228

2004

8.723

209.400

930

270

2005

8.521

219.000

1.063

308

Some companies such as Dalat Hasfarm Agrivina, Bonnie Farm, Da Lat flowers forest, Langbiang Farm made a great turning point in flower planting in Da Lat.

Dalat Hasfarm Agrivina company of Netherlands began operations in Da Lat in 1994. In 2005, the company had 34 ha cut flower area in ward 8 (25 ha) and Xuan Tho (9 ha). With 30 ha glass house, the company produced many kind of flowers such as chrysanthemum, rose, carnation, gerbera, etc. The main consumer market was Japan.

Bonnie Farm company of Taiwan located in Xuan Truong commune providing flower seeds, planting and exporting primrose (cyclamen), lily, chrysanthemum, etc. to Taiwan and Japan.

Biotechnology Da Lat Flower Forest Corporation joined with farmer to produce and export arum, chrysanthemum, rose, lily, etc. to Japan, Indonesia and Belgium.

Lang Biang Farm Ltd. Company is a unit of private enterprises, investing into flower seeds field, services providing and flowers supplies.

In the field of manufacturing all kinds of vegetables, there was many vegetable production companies in Da Lat such as Lam Dong Agriculture and Food, Golden Garden Ltd., Kim Bang Ltd., Bio-Organics Ltd., Vegetables Green House, etc. Besides, there were some private enterprises operating in the area of Da Lat vegetable export to Taiwan, Japan, Korea, for instance, Khanh Cat, Mai Nguyen Ltd., etc. with annual export yield reached 15,000 tons.

Since 2001, agricultural production in Da Lat has shifted in the line with production of high quality agricultural products which is suitable with trend of economic integration with other regions in our country and countries in the region; being identified as a strength to create jobs for agricultural laborers; also incorporating the agricultural development with renovation and beautification landscape, environment, contributing to the development of tourism in Da Lat. Product quality has been improved more and more and residual levels of toxic residues in vegetable products are lower threshold several times.

2001-2005 is the period agriculture in Da Lat began to change. Agricultural production developing oriented high-tech applications in the agricultural areas in Da Lat formed the model of agricultural economy efficiently. The programs and projects supporting for the agricultural economic development are invested directly into the households contributing to stimulate the development of production.

2. Agriculture land and land use in agriculture production

2.1 Land classification and use

Before 1975, according to some studies on land in Dalat, the soil here was considered as a disadvantage for agricultural production. If, farmers wanted to cultivate their land, they had to carry out some methods to improve their land.

According to the studies before 1975, there are four main soil groups in Dalat, as follow:

- Red yellow podzolic soils.

- Complex of podzolic soils on old alluvial.

- Complex mountain soils, mostly red-yellow podzolic soils.

- Reddish-Brown latosol on basalt.

These studies indicated that the majority of agricultural land in Dalat was red-yellow podzolic one. Due to the poor mineral nutrition, in the process of cultivating, farmers had to use a large amount of fertilizer.

The producers prefer using podzolic soils to using latosol soil because water holding capacity of the podzolic soil is better and higher ventilation rate, which is easy for plants to grow on.

After 1975, studies on land in Dalat were carried out in more detail.

In 1978, the National Institute of Agricultural Planning and Projection and University established a map,with 1/25.000 rate, dividing Dalat lands into five main groups including alluvial soil, red and yellow soil, slope convergence, land yellow and red swamp muck in the mountains, in which, red and yellow soil, alluvial soil and slope are used to build agricultural production accounts for a major proportion.

SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME TYPES OF LAND IN DA LAT

Type of land

Mechanical composition

Layer thickness (cm) cm)

Gley

Main colors

Alluvial streams

Sandy + heavy, mild

>100

weak

Gray, brown

Reddish-Brown on basalt

Medium, heavy

>100

streak

Red brown

Reddish-Brown on daxit

Medium, heavy

70-100

Brown-red, red-brown

Brown-yellow on daxit

Medium, heavy

50-100

Brown- yellow

Golden red on sand

Medium, mild

50-100

Yellow-red, red-yellow

Golden red on clay

Medium, heavy

30-100

Yellow-red

Yellow-red on granit

Medium, mild

>70

Medium

Yellow-red

Slope convergence

Medium, mild

>100

Heavy

Gray-brown, brown- black

Based on studies in 1987 on the physical characteristics of land, Da Lat has land capable of agricultural production that accounted for 10,998 ha.

Fitness levels of crops on the land that are for agricultural production in Da Lat are evaluated as follows:

- Alluvial soil favorable for the producing vegetables, rice and maize.

- Reddish brown soil favorable for industrial crops (coffee), shot-day crops (potatoes).

- Brown soil favorable for the producing cutting flowers and artichokes.

- Red and yellow soil favorable for producing flower, artichokes, vegetables, tea, fruit trees.

- Red yellow soil favorable to plant vegetables, fruit trees and food crops.

In 2000, Da Lat City made an analysis of 250 soil samples representing for the local agricultural production areas.

Results of 250 soil samples analysis in Dalat in 2000 show us some characteristics of Dalat soil such as low humus level, medium pH is low (acidic), the multi-element minerals, low-level secondary and micro-amounts. Therefore, to produce vegetables effectively, people need to use a large amount of fertilizer supplements. It includes the addition of organic matter, which is an emergency measure to maintain the mechanical properties and the glue of the land.

According to the Dalat soil map with 1/25.000 rate set on the amendments of the land map with the 1/100.000 rate of the National Institute of Agricultural Planning and Projection, Dalat City has five major groups of land with 12 units of land classified as follow:

- Alluvial land include acidic alluvial, gley alluvial (423.64 ha area).

- A group of acidic gley land (353.45 ha area).

- The group of red soil consists of more acidic surface humus, rich-humus soil acidity, soil acidity, poor base (area 1358.75 ha).

- A group of gray-land include very sour gravel gray land, red, yellow gray soil, rich humus gray aluminum soil, very sour and rich humus surface gray soil and gray soil (area of 35,213.08 ha).

- A group of black soil include rich black humus solid (557.94 ha area).

The rest are other kinds of land, lakes and rivers.

The comparison of characteristics of land in Dalat and that of Lam Dong as well as to the common evaluation standards in Vietnam shows that Dalat land has relative fertility. Land degradation accounts for very small rate, which is suitable for agricultural development. Fairly thick soil layer, and steep slopes, along with the intense rainfall are vulnerable to cause runoff and erosion land. Potential risk of degradation still remains if there is no better protection and rational use. Water holding capacity and nutrition in land is not high, so a special attention on protection measures and improving the organic content in soil is needed.

2.2 Distribution of production areas

Since the development of vegetable flower cultivation, vegetables cultivated area in Da Lat developed rapidly with 12.3 ha in 1938 increasing to 814.63 ha in 1968. The cultivated areas were expanded to more areas in Dalat. Most of them produced vegetables such as cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cauliflowers, lettuce, carrots, potatoes.

During this time, agricultural production in Da Lat did not have a clear partition, but began to establish some production areas:

- Region of Ha Dong, Nghe Tinh, Da Thien, Da Cat: mainly vegetables of all kinds.

- Thai Phien Area, South Lake: Producing artichokes, Gladiolus, lilies, daisy, Marguerite.

- Tho Xuan area, Mat Trai: carrots, a few other vegetables.

- Xuan Truong Zone: mainly tea, fruits, Gladiolus.

- An Binh, Quang Thua: mainly vegetables, fruit trees.

In the period 1975-1985, agricultural production of Dalat began the production partition plan. For the first time, most agricultural areas of Dalat focused on the production of food crops (sweet potatoes, cassava, galangal roots), only a few dominant areas still continue to produce vegetables. So Da Lat vegetable production in these years is lower than the years prior to 1975.

Planning for agricultural production in 1987 in Da Lat developed sub-regional agricultural production in a particular way based on climatic conditions, mechanical properties of the soil, farming practices of local people and the targets of plans for production development. On these factors, Dalat city is divided into three primary areas:

-Subregion 1 includes Ta Nung, where land is mostly reddish brown on basalt and reddish yellow on daxit, a layer of 100 cm thick, gradient from 5 to 20, the main crops are coffee and food crops.

-Sub-region 2 consists of 12 wards (from Ward 1 to Ward 12). Soil types are mainly reddish yellow on sand, golden red on granite and alluvium, with 70-100cm thick layer, slope 3-20, the main crops are vegetables, herbs, branch-cut flowers.

-Sub-region 3 consists of two sub-areas Xuan Tho and Xuan Truong. Soil types are mainly golden red on sand, brown red on daxit, a layer of 100 cm thick, gradient 5-25, the main crops are coffee, tea, fruit, vegetables.

Agriculture, forestry planning Dalat in 1997 redefined the sub-regional agricultural production based on natural features of the area, not too much impact on the agricultural ecosystem by farming methods to achieve higher production goals.

Implementation of agricultural development in those directions, until 2000, Da Lat had gradually formed the major production areas as follows:

- Ward 3, 10: coffee and fruit specialties.

- Ward 4, 5, 6: vegetables, flowers, plant roots.

- Ward 7, 8, 9, 11, 12: vegetables, flowers, strawberries.

- Tho Xuan, Xuan Truong: Root crops, coffee and tea.

- Ta Nung: coffee, food crops.

According to investigation results on May 102001, land used for agricultural production in Da Lat city was 9767.79 hectares, in which individual households managed 9,326.11 hectares, domestic economic organizations 300.07 ha units, foreign-invested joint ventures 45.42 hectares, People’s Committee of communes and wards 91.02 hectares, and other economic organizations 5.17 ha. The area of agricultural land in the coastal wards (wards 7, 8, 11, 12) and rural areas (3 communes: Tho Xuan, Xuan Truong, Ta Nung) account for 73% to 7509.39 ha.

The vegetable area Van Thanh, Cam Ly (2006)

3. The Situation Of Livestock

3.1 The period before 1975

The sector of livestock and poultry began in Dalat since the establishment of agricultural stations Dankia. Along with the experiments on the temperate plant varieties temperate, the agricultural station also held a number of animal husbandry such as cattle, sheep,... The domestic animals for a long period only catered for needs of the family and did not become a commodity.

In the years before 1954, a French dairy farm dairy organized the cultivation of pure dairy cows (Mrs. O'Neill's farm in Cam Ly raised the dairy breed Ayrshire), sheep hybrids between India sheep and Yunnan sheep (Farraut camp).

Since 1960, some farmers began develop the livestock in the family with cows for beef and dairy cows, sheep, horses, livestock... The livestock scope started to meet the food demand of the people in Da Lat with limited livestock products.

Scala Chicken Farm was founded in 1966 in the area No 6 (now part of Ward 7), keeping different varieties of chickens for eggs and for meat. Scala's chicken products met the local demand for meat and eggs and provided the Saigon market. In 1973, Scala Farm’s production reaches 150,000chicken.

3.2 The period after 1975

3.2.1 Period from 1975 to 1990

In the early years after liberation, livestock and poultry were widely raised. The varieties were mainly backyard chicken (local chicken), rabbits, pigs and local cows, dairy cows. During this time the livestock sector had difficulties with feed and veterinary medicine. Feeding sources mainly made use of agricultural residues and other types of corn, sweet potatoes, manioc (cassava) to produce.

LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY SITUATION 1977 - 1990

Unit: head

Year

Cattle

Pigs

Poultry

1977

2,124

6,569

29,117

1985

7,027

5,745

27,552

1990

2,040

3,188

20,000

Since 1986, Dalat farmers have gradually converted breeding methods. During this period, the largest-scale poultry farm is the state-owned Da Lat Chicken Farm (converted Scala Chicken Farm) with the number of 25,000 chickens. Private farms had a limited scale of 200-300 chicken raised for eggs.

As for pig farms, the pig reserve of Lam Dong’s Agricultural Product and Food Company (now in Ward 8) maintain a regular stock of 200-250 pig sows and porkers. Besides, the pig breeding farm of the cattle station located at No. 2 Ba Huyen Thanh Quan kept six breeding males, this is the basis of extraction and supply of essential foreign pig breeds (Yorkshire and Landrace breeds) for livestock establishments in the city of Da Lat and the surrounding districts.

The pig farms of local people kept about 20-30 sows and at highest 100 porkers. The most developed pig area during this period included An Binh, Du Sinh, Dong Tinh, Phan Chu Trinh, Khe Sanh,...

With regard to beef and dairy cattle, the herd of beef cows of the Cau Dat tea factory was the largest in the city with over 200 cows (1986-1990), followed by that of farmer households of Xuan Truong, Tho Xuan with the common scale of 20-30 cows.

Also during this time, breeding rabbits attract investment of farming households to exploit fur and meat, there were farms of 400 rabbits in Da Tho (Xuan Tho) and the rabbit breed supply farm in Ward 3 with the scale of 200 rabbits.

3.2.2 Period from 1991 to 1995

After 1990, the livestock sector in Dalat focused on the goal of developing production to serve local needs and cater for tourism - services.

The artificial insemination program to improve the quality of breeds was deployed; farmers were interested in investment in high-quality breeds; breeding facilities were improved, feed for livestock were plenty and diverse, the specific types of medicine are common, emphasis was put on the prevention against veterinary epidemic diseases of cattle and poultry contributing to promote the livestock industry in Dalat.

SITUATION OF LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY (1991-1995)

Unit: head

Year

Cattle

Pig

Poultry

1991

2,230 (270)*

4,284

40,000

1992

2,895 (275)

6,944

65,000

1993

3,027 (250)

7,086

80,000

1994

3,258 (189)

7,431

110,000

1995

3,745 (92)

6,485

125,000

*Dairy cows

In the course of breeding cattle, in 1990, dairy herds flourished in Dalat with 275 dairy cows; dairy cow hybrid F1, F2, F3 were kept in the household farms (1992). However, due to unsatisfactory trading of fresh milk products and unstable markets Dalat’s dairy herds decreased.

3.2.3 Period 1996-2005

In the 10 years 1996-2005, the livestock sector in Dalat took steps to develop more than the previous years.

Poultry at a time reached 180,000 heads (2004) with many farms in the industrial scale, including Dalat Chicken Livestock Corporation (converted from Dalat state-owned Chicken factory) with the largest herd of up to 50,000 chicken (6,000 parent chickens). Household-scale poultry production also reached 25,000 chicken in a farm with a industrial investment scale in Ward 8, most of the farms from 2500 to 5000 chicken. Hen breed were mainly Isabrown, Brownish; chicken breeds include Tam Hoang, Luong Phuong.

According to the statistics of Dalat Agricultural Center, in 2005 Dalat had nine farms with more than 2,000 chicken, 23 farms with less than 2,000 chicken and over 850 small farms. Some downturns in poultry in the period 2000-2005 was due to the outbreak of bird flu.

The number of pigs grew very rapidly with a total of over 10,000 pigs in 2000 and over 15,000 pigs in 2003. During this time, some private farms were established in Zone C, Xo Viet Nghe Tinh street, Bach Dang area (Ward 7), Doc Da area (Ward 8), Alley 14 (3 April street), An Binh area ( Ward 3),... The livestock scale reached 100 breeding sows and 500 porkers. Breeds were mainly Yorkshire crossbred pigs - Landrace and Pietrain breeds, Duroc.

In 2005, the total herd of cattle (buffaloes and cows) of Da Lat reached over 5,000 heads. Those farms with large herds on average less than 50 cows were concentrated in Van Thanh area (Ward 5), Da Phu (Ward 7), Da Thien (Ward 8), Da Tho (Xuan Tho)...

Common farming scale of around 20 cows. Breeds were mainly local yellow cattle, of which some were hybrid Sindhi Zebu group.

As regards dairy cows, in December 2001, the total dairy herd in household farms had only 98 cows, including 72 purebred dairy cows HF and 26 dairy hybrids. Dairy farming in the locals has been recovered since 2002, thanks to the program to project the dairy development in Lam Dong province in the period 2001-2005 under the general policy of the Government. In the three years 2002-2005, Da Lat's dairy herd increased from 98 cows to 295 cows in December 2004, concentrated in wards 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and ward 11. Other localities also had dairy farming, but no significant scale. Da Lat's dairy herd during this period included mainly imported varieties from Australia.

SITUATION OF LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY (1996-2005)

Year

Cattle

Pigs

Poultry

1996

2,817 (70)*

5,907

130,000

1997

3, 802 (65)

6,825

145,000

1998

3,634 (71)

6,864

112,000

1999

3,670 (52)

6,908

126,000

2000

2,500 (…)

12,500

115,000

2001

2,369 (98)

13,000

120,000

2002

2,719 (152)

13,668

165,000

2003

3,531 (202)

15,936

127,000

2004

4,484 (295)

15,450

180,000

2005

5,050 (295)

16,000

109,500

*Dairy cows

4. Types Of Plant Varieties, Livestock

4.1 Species

4.1.1 Vegetable Species

In 1930, vegetable species from France were planted and produced excellent results: lettuce (Salade à couper laitue amelioree Parisienne), peas (Petit à longue lug POIs Express, mange tout, roi des Carouby), cabbage (Coeur de boeuf Moyen Chou, Chou Express, Chou de Noel, Chou quintal d'Alsace), strawberries (Fraisiers de Quatre saisons, Vicomtesse de Thurty Hericart), cauliflowers (Chou-Fleur d'Alger, Chou-Fleur Merveille de toutes saisons), carrots (Carotte rouge demi-longue de Chantenay, carotte rouge de Saint Valéry).

In 1948, due to war, vegetable seeds imported from other countries in Da Lat was limited and not sufficient to provide for local production. In the village of Ha Dong, the variety of cabbage grown by bouture was discovered and this technique became popular throughout the vegetable production areas of Da Lat, helping farmers with seedlings in production, and this technique lasted until the year 1980.

In 1959, with the formation of the Center for Experimental Vegetables and Flowers in Da Lat, a series of vegetable varieties was released and practically served Da Lat vegetables.

After 1970, sources of vegetable seeds imported into South Vietnam were relatively abundant and met the growing demand of production in Dalat. However, the other variety of vegetables such as carrots, cauliflowers, ordinary vegetables were bred and used by farmers themselves. The imported species included mainly cabbage, Chinese cabbage, green pepper, and some other high-value vegetables (such as celery,...).

In 1977, some vegetable seeds taken from the North have contributed to solving the shortage of vegetable seeds in Dalat (4 tons imported in 1977 such as cabbages, Chinese cabbages for growing vegetables in Dalat).

As reported by a survey on vegetable varieties of the commission for Highland Agriculture (Agricultural University), in partnership with Lam Dong Office of Agriculture and Agriculture Department, Dalat has the following vegetable varieties:

-A wide range of cabbages.

• Legumes: peas; snow peas; American beans; white beans, black beans.

• A wide range of garlic: garlic from Phan Rang; leek, the Red Creole, Tropicana Red, Granex; Grane Early, Texas Early, Grano 502.

• Tomato and eggplant: white eggplant; wild tomato; peppers; Patronet potatoes, Cosima, Desiree, Askersegen; U.S. tomatoes.

• a wide range of celery; lettuce; mints, carrots.

• A wide varieties of spinach and lettuce

A review of the 1979-1983 vegetable varieties showed that Dalat has favourable conditions suitable for the production of some vegetables for vegetable producing needs to sell to other provinces in the country. The vegetable varieties can grow well in Dalat include beet, turnip from Hanoi, Thai turnips, caulifowers, green beans, white beans Cove, Lang Son cabbage, cabbage No. 5.

In the years 1987-1991, Da Lat Department of Agriculture conducted the same test group of cabbage and Chinese cabbage Tohoku Co. (Japan) consisting of six cabbage varieties CR-100, TH-8260, Early Shogun, Shogun, TH-7450, TH-3920 and 3 females north Workshop C-55, FS-60, R-70. They selected two cabbage varieties Early Shogun, Shogun and an FS-60 Chinese cabbage varieties suitable to the production conditions in Dalat.

In the 1990s, the local scientific research organizations created new varieties of vegetables to put into agricultural production. The potato Atzimba (012), CFK-69.1 (06), Utatlan (07), Rosita - 114,... (The International Potato Center CIP), the Green Coronet Cabbage varieties, Green Crown; Chorus, Tempest, W-60, WR-70 (Takii Seed Co. - Japan) Shogun cabbage (Tohoku - Japan), cabbage, Paris Cabbage (France), Grand 11, A-28 (Chitai

Company - Thailand), cabbage TN-35, 304 (Trang Agro Company) Yellow onions Granex, Red Creole C5 (U.S.) Red Light Green Top, Detroit Dark Red Morse's Strain, Tezier,... met the needs of local breeds at certain times.

Since 1996, several other high-value vegetable varieties have been produced successfully in the area of Da Lat vegetables such as Lollo Rossa, Romaine, Green Oakleaf, Asparagus, Broccoli, Fenel, Leeks, Red Cabbage, Red radish, Batavian Green, Big Frisee, Ice Berg, Slearole, Rocket arugula, Mache, French Bean, Brasil, Chives, Parsley, Dill, Tartagon, Thyme, Button Mushroom, Chery Tomato...

Cabbages (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L., the Cruciferae, also known as chou pomme, a popular type of vegetable in the cultivation areas in Da Lat in the past and present.

There are many varieties of cabbage grown in Da Lat from the seed companies in Japan, France, America, Thailand, Taiwan,... including cabbage varieties grown in Japan thanks to the most suitable conditions of climate and soil of Dalat, the resistance against a common fungus disease, high yield and stability.

In 1960-1975: Takii seed company and Tokia company provided such varieties as NS-Cross, KY, KK-cross, OS-cross, AS-cross, MS-cross,...

After 1975: NS-cross (Takii)

From 1985 to present: Shogun, Green Coronet, Crown Green, Green Rocket F1, F1 VL90, VL186 F1, F1 Cape Horn...

The variety has been tested in Da Lat include:T70, A72, A90, Resit Lake, Dragon, Paris, Grand 11, Early Shogun, No 5,...

Cabbages are grown all year round in Da Lat, not dependent on weather conditions. Average yield in spring can reach 900 to 1100 kg / ha, the summer reached 600-750 kg / ha.

Chinese cabbages (Brassica Pe-Tsai L. Bailey, they Cruciferae) are the vegetables suitable for the climate and soil conditions of Da Lat and easy for cultivation, so they are produced on large scales. Most localities have grown cabbages.

The varieties originating from Japan, France, USA, Taiwan, South Korea, including cabbage varieties from Japan, Korea, Taiwan, are preferred.

In 1960-1970: Champion, Nagaoka King, Ideal Market, 60 days, Wonder Cron, Crown, Pungchu, Karah New N01, Myojyo, New Bulam,...

From 1975 to now: Chorus, Tempest, Tokita Kingdom, Green Rocket, T65, 304, TN35, Tropical Delingt F1, F1 Tropical Emperor,...

Cabbages are grown all year round in Da Lat, focusing on the winter-spring crop every year with the average yield of 500-600 kg / ha.

Cauliflowers (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis L.,) also known as Chou-Fleur. The annual cultivated area accounts for about 10%. Most localities in the city grow caulifowers. Appropriate seasons are in winter and spring, people have now cultivated throughout the year with many different varieties from France, Japan, and the United States.

From 1960: Late Fengshan of Taiwan.

From 1975: The Four-season varieties from North Vietnam.

From 1990:

White Cauliflowers: Snowball-Early, Alba, White Flash, Snow Crown, Snow King 65, Snow Prince, Snow March, White Corona F1,...

Picture - White Cauliflowers

Broccoli (Broccoli): Avella, Southern Star, 1919F1-Thiram, Broccoli Marathon, Green Magic,...

Now there are many varieties with short cultivation period of about 75-90 days (Broccoli). The productivity of white cauliflowers reached 750 to 900 kg / ha, Broccoli 60-80 kg / ha.

Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L., the Solanaceae family) were first planted for experiment at the beginning time of the city and now are cultivated in many parts of the city.

From 1980 and earlier, potatoes could be grown only in the spring but now can be grown all year round in Dalat on a scale from 350-500 ha / crop. Before the 1980 potatoes were grown mostly from seed. From 1980 to now, seedlings are produced from the plant tissue culture technology.

Before 1975: Patrones (Netherlands), Cosima (West Germany) in use since 1963; Tondra (West Germany), Desiree (Netherlands) since 1968.

From 1980-1995: Atzimba, I.1035, CFK 69-1, Utatlan 69, P3, 114 Rosita, Kennebec, Greta, Kerpundi,... from Mexico, the U.S. and France.

Today's popular varieties: 06 (CFK 69.1), 07 (Uatatlan) PO3.

From 1980-1990, more than 100 varieties of potatoes were stored in the local seed banks (Plant tissue culture Station of Dalat and the Potato Research Center) using the technique of plant tissue culture.

Potatoes grown in the summer have a shorter growing time than those in the spring. The current average yield of the spring crop reaches 150-180 kg / ha. That of the summer is lower, from 100-120 kg / ha.

Carrots (Daucus L. logging, the Umbelliferae) best suit the basalt soil. Local farming is highly effective in Xuan Tho, Cam Ly, Da Thien. The producers also produce the seeds for their next season.

Before 1960: Just Rouge de Saint Valéry, Demi-Longue de Chantenay.

After 1960: Nantes Half Long, Royal Chantenay, Obtuse de Longue Rouge Colma.

From 1975: Victoria, Royal cross, Super VL, Kuroda,...

The introduction of these new varieties from 1975 to now are quite a lot, although they are of higher quality but less popular due to the low yield and not adapted to soil conditions of the locality. The average yield of 350-400 kg / ha.

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Capitata L., they Asteraceae) is a popular short-term vegetable in Da Lat; a short growing period should be very suitable for intercropping with different kinds of vegetables. This vegetable is not picky to soils, hence can be grown on so many different lands and grown throughout the year.

Before 1960: laitue Salade Parisienne à couper amelioree.

From 1960: the CLS 808 Butter lettuce, lettuce Marina, lettuce Mini Star, Full Heart NR65, Endive N0 138,...

From 1998: Many new lettuce varieties were imported and planted by the method of producing high quality vegetables with many different colors such as Lolo Rossa, Romaine, Green Oakleaf, VL800, GR-603, Lion seed, lettuce Ultima, NOK Tropica...

Lettuce has a short growing time of approximately 45-55 days, the average yield of 20 000 kg / ha.

Celery (Apium graveolens, L., the Umbelliferae) is a popular leaf vegetables in Da Lat, so well suited to the lowland, and moisture. Celery is grown in wards 7, 8, 9, 12, The growing time is from 60 to 75 days but the seeding time is rather long, from 55 to 60 days.

From 1960: Utah 52-70, Tall Utah 54-70.

Today’s popular celery is the America's Florida.

Onion (Allium CEPA L., the Liliaceae). The onion-growing localities in Da Lat include Phuoc Thanh, Thanh Mau, Kim Thach, An Son, Quang Thua, Cam Ly. Lands suitable for growing onions are open, sandy, alluvial area of soil near rivers and streams.

From 1960: Texas Early Grano 502, Granex, Creole Red, Yellow Dessex,...

New varieties: VL-201 F1, VL-215 F1, Onda Vistra...

Garlic (Allium sativum L., Liliaceae) is also a plant grown in the years before 1980 including Si-lou White leaf, Hsuehchia Softsltem, Annan Very Early, Tzutung Black Leaf,...

Leeks are currently being grown in Phuoc Thanh and Kim Thach. The current popular varieties include Kyoto Market, Large Long Summer.

Peas (Pisum sativum L., Leguminosae) are mostly cultivated in Phuoc Thanh, Thanh Mau.

Seeds previously imported from the United States, Taiwan, France include Mammoth Melting Sugar, Tai Chung N09 & N010, Merveille de Kelvedon. The producers then themselves produce seeds for planting the next season. Currently these varieties have become local varieties.

In 1990, some varieties of peas originating from Taiwan, the United States were included in the experimental cultivation in Da Lat (Garden Pea, Edible Pod,...), but most of them were not suitable for the climatic conditions, soil, and the yield was lower than domesticated varieties ; therefore, they were not favored by producers.

Peas can be grown all year round in Da Lat, but the spring gives greater efficiency because of less harmful pathogens. A crop of peas can be harvested from 10-12 times, the average yield from 1.2 to 1.5 t / ha.

Beetroot (Beta vulgaris, the Chenopodiaceae) also known as raffinate. Beetroot is a common agricultural produces grown in Da Lat, mainly intercropped with other vegetable varieties: Green Top Banching, Beet, Ferry Morse, TN9,...

Radish (Raphanus acanthiformis Morel., The Cruciferae) is a common agricultural product in Da Lat from the years before 1990. There is still a production but no large-scale varieties: Early Long White Mine, Winter Queen, Mino Early White, 40 Days, Jumbo Scralat...

Spinach (Spinacia olerceae, the Cruciferae) is a popular short-term vegetable of Da Lat, grown throughout the year, mostly in areas of Thanh Mau and Nguyen Tu Luc, the most popular varieties are imported fromJapan: HN225, Orient, Green Boy, Dash, Anna,...

4.1.2. Flowers

In addition to the already popular varieties that become the local traditional varieties such as white lilies, sword flowers, roses, in 1990, the varieties of Gerbera (GERBERA) are imported in Dalat and planted most inThai Phien. They include deep red, fire red, yellow, pink gerbera,... During this time there are over 25 varieties of rose farmers grew experimentally in Cam Ly (Ward 5) and selected some varieties like red Italian, Dutch red,....

In 1984, the program of research on Dalat’sCymbidium was started. With techniques of plant tissue culture, hundreds of thousands of local orchid plant tissues of rare varieties have been rapidly multiplied and timely served the local needs. Statistics show that in 1988 the plant tissue culture station of Da Lat (the Committee of Science - Engineering Dalat), at this time, Da Lat has over 250 local varieties of Cymbidium orchids, 9 species in natural 25 varieties with genetic values, which can make the original sources for breeding. In addition, Da Lat has about 300 species of wild orchids of tropical high mountains on a valuable collection of scientific breeding and genetics, including most notably the species of the genus Dendrobium, Paphiopedilum, Coelogyne, Bulbophyllum,...

Since 1995, new varieties of branch-cut flowers imported and grown experimentally helped enrich the types of branch-cut flowers in the locality. Estimated early in 2000, Da Lat had about 60 varieties of chrysanthemum, 20 varieties of daisy, 15 varieties of carnation, 10 varieties of rose, and over 10 different kinds of flowers.

Orchids are one of the distinctive flowers, planted long ago. By the 1960s, the importation has given Da Lat new types and new orchid varieties.

The introduction of new orchids Da Lat include: Cattleya, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Paphiopedilum, Oncidium, Odontoglossum, Vanda, with over 300 varieties. Varieties of Begal Bay Golden Hue, Suva Royal Velvet, Sayonara Raritan, Balkis, Eliotte,.. imported from the 1960s are now still quite popular and growing in orchid gardens.

Since 2000, some tropical and subtropical orchids were also successfully grown in Da Lat such as hybrids in the genus of Phalaenopsis, Oncidium, Odontoglassum,...

Domestic species have been collected and grown in Da Lat City from 1940 to date. The popular orchids in Da Lat include Dendrobium primulinum Lindl, Den. chrysotosum Lindl. Var. Delacourii Gagn., White narcissus (Den. farmeri Paxton.), The Gold Daffodil (Den. thyrsiflorum Reichb.f.), Den. densiflorum Wall, Den. fimbriatum Hook. var. oculatum Hook, Den. superbum Reich. in Walp., Den. gratiotissimum Reichb.f., Bulbophyllum sp., Snow pearl (Coelogyne psectrantha Gagn.), Coelogyne lawrenceana Rolfe, Vanda denisoniana Bens. et. Reichb.f, Vanda watsonii Rolfe, Vandopsis parishii (Veitsch) Reichb.f, Renanthera imschootiana Rolfe., Renanthera evrardii Guillaum., Phalaenopsis manii Reichb.f., Paphiopedilum callosum Kerchove, Paphiopedilum villosum (Lindl.) Pfitz.), Aerides lawrenceana, Phajus tankervilleae (Ait.) Bl.).

Gladiolus: Gladiolus x Gandavensis Van Houte, Gladiolus communis L, the Iridaceae). Gladiolus originated from Central Europe, West Asia and South Africa, and was cultivated in Dalat in approximately 1955. Various gladiolus producing areas of Da Lat are Truong Son, Spring City, Tu Duc, Sao Nam,... and also scattered in many other localities in the city.

Previous popular varities have many different colors:

• White: Maria Goretti, PRINCESSE des neiges.

• Yellow: Gold Dust, Hopman's Glory, Glory Vinks

• Red: Johan Van, Pride of Holland, Sans Souci, Cardinal Spellman, Hawaii, Johan Strauss.

• Pink: An Spic Span, Alfred Nobel, Jenny Lind, Picardie.

• Purple: Gustave Mahier, Mabel Violet, Memorial Day.

• Other types; Polygone, Benares, Pactuolus, gratia, Abu Hassan.

Gladiolus was imported from 1990 primarily from the Netherlands:

• Yellow: Marrakech.

• Red: Dunkel Rot, Mozambique.

- Purple: Bleu-violet.

• Pink: Bono's Memory, Glorianda.

Popular gladiolus varieties being grown in Da Lat include Carqueranne, T-609, Jackson Ville Gold, White Goddes; Oscar,...

Gladiolus can grow all year round in Da Lat but not in the loop 2 consecutive crops. Annually, Da Lat provide the domestic market with about 1.5 to 2 million gladiolus flowers.

Roses (Rosa hybrida Hook., The Rosaceae) have been grown in Da Lat for a long time. In 1958, Da Lat farmers imported the new varieties of branch-cut flowers for cultivation. The area planting many roses in Dalat include Nguyen Tu Luc, Thanh Mau, Thai Phien, Van Thanh, An Son, Quang Thua... and scattered in many different areas.

Roses planted in the 1960s:

• Red: nume’ro un, Schweitzer, Meillend Rouge, Michele-Meillend, Hélène Valabrugne, Charles Mallerin, Brigitte Bardot, Brunner.

• Pink: Caroline Testout, Betty Uprichard.

• Yellow: Québec, Mme A. Meilland, Hawaii, Diamont.

• White: Reine des neiges, Sterling Silver.

- Two colors: J.B. Meilland, Mme Dieytone, President Herbert Hoover.

• Roses grown as decorative fences: Primeviere, Gloire de Dijon, Climbing, Caroline Testont, Etoile de Hollande,...

Varieties of roses imported in 1990:

• Red: Grand Galla, Amadeus, Red Velvet.

• Yellow: Pailine, Alsmeer Gold.

• White: Supreme de Meillend, Vivinne.

• The other colors: Sheer Bilss, Jacaranda, Troika,...

The varities widely planted in Da Lat:

• White: Eskimo, Bianca, Vanilla, Vendela.

• Yellow: Frisco, Golden Gate, Gold Strike, Sunbeam.

• Orange: Circus, Orange Kiss, Chesea.

• Pink: Aquarius, Kiss Pink, Saphir, Arifa.

• Red: Rode, First Red, Red Corvett, Sacha.

- Alegria, Lydia White, Sereno, Suncity, Macarena, Lydia, Lydia Lovely Red Micado,...

Currently rose cultivation techniques has been improved greatly with the organization of farming in the shelter, planting techniques applied directly without going through stages of grafting,... so they produce very good quality flowers and meet requirements of the consumer market. Da Lat provide annual market of about 80-100 million rose stems.

Lilies (Lilium longiflorum Thunb. The Liliaceae). Lily flowers grown in Da Lat in 1940 were the French original species grown first in Hanoi. Since 1970, Da Lat has some type lilies from Korea, Japan. Japanese varieties have different colors but only the white one can adapt and exist today.

Currently there are more varieties of imported lilies (lys color) as corsage, Destiny, Sisi, Tiber, Sorbonne,... planted in the farm.

Lily flowers cultivating areas of Dalat include Truong Xuan, Sao Nam, Chi Lang, Thai Phien, Da Thien.

Annually, Da Lat provides about 15-20 million lily flowers for the domestic consumer market.

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp., The Asteraceae) has been grown as an ornamental plant in Dalat for long, but really became an economic product in 1995. So far there are over 70 varieties of chrysanthemum for branch-cutting purposes in Dalat. Chrysanthemum varieties are mainly derived from the Netherlands and arrived in Da Lat with many different forms. Currently it is unable to determine the trade name of each type of chrysanthemum grown in Da Lat. Chrysanthemum varieties grown in Da Lat can be divided into the following groups:

-Large Chrysanthemum:

Single flowers: Yellow, white, red, purple red. Flowers 6-7cm large, double petals.Species: Hibiki, Zembra.

Multiple flowers: orange, saffron, lemon yellow, white... Flowers 4-5 cm, double petals. Species: Euro, Mona Lisa Yellow, Vesuvio Yellow, Orange Fiji.

- Group of small flowers:

• Daisy: White, yellow, saffron, green, deep red, purple... Stigma like honeycomb, many flowers. Flowers from 2 to 2.5 cm. Species: Jo Spithoven, Samos, Puma Sunny, Sunny Ibis.

-Marigold Daisy: White, yellow, orange, red. Dual petal distribution like marigold patterns. Flowers 3-5cm.Species: Feeling Grenn, Cheeks.

Pingpong Daisy: White, yellow. Dual petal. Flowers are 3-5cm. Flower varieties: pingpong Golden, pingpong Super.

Apricot Daisy: Purple, pink, red, yellow, dark yellow, gold, brown yellow, white, orange, orange, brown... 1-2 layers of petals. Stigma similar to Marguerite flower. Flowers 2.5-3cm. Varieties of flowers: Wimbledon, Salomon Lineker, Lineker Amber, Yellow Lineker, Grand Splendid,...

• Wild Daisy: Purple and gold. One thin layer of petals. Flowers 4-5cm.Varieties: Lineker Dark, Grand Salomon, Managua,...

Group of purple chrysanthemums: Vesuvio, Vesuvio Yellow, Yellow Delianne, Shamrock, Biarritz, Sabrina,...

The area of branch-cut chrysanthemum cultivation in Da Lat increased greatly in the years 1997-2000, representing about 40-50% of the production of branch-cut flowers in the locality. Chrysanthemums are grown mainly in the plastic-covered house and produced all year round. Annually, Da Lat provides 300-350 million branches of Chrysanthemums for the consumer market.

Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., the Caryophyllaceae). Previously carnations were grown for ornamental decoration. Since 1975 there has been a production of branch-cut flowers. Carnation production regions include Van Thanh, Thai Phien, Nguyen Tu Luc, Da Thien Phuoc Thanh, Da Quy,...

Over 20 varieties are cultivated for the purpose of cutting branched. The varieties cultivated today are divided into the following groups:

• flower cluster group: Red, pink, white, cream,... small, low branches 30-40cm. The growing time of 18-24 months. Species: Furore, peachy Furore, Barbara Light Pink, Scarlet King, Barbara, Dark Pink Barbara, Windows, Ibriza, Bosanka, Natalia White, Optima, andaluz.

• Single flower group: Red, large flowers, 70-80 cm high petals, little buds, growing time of 15-18 months. Species: Tundra, Tundra Orange, Jamaica, Harlem, Essiana, Solo, Tessino, Scarlet Queen, Gaudina, Tahiti, Pink Dona...

• Pink, yellow, white, orange, cream, yellow, red, pink with purple, red with white, pink with white border,... Flowers 65-75cm large with high stems, many buds, growing time of 18 - 24 months.

Carnation cultivation area is not large. The flowers are mainly grown in plastic covered houses. Annually, Da Lat provides about 0.3 to 0.5 million carnation flowers of all kinds.

Different types of branch-cut flowers

Gerbera (Gerbera jamosonii Bolus et Hook., the Asteraceae) was flowers common in Dalat before 1975 for the purpose of cutting branches, there are many different colors (yellow, orange, red, pink,...). Dalat in 1980 added a number of dual petal varieties imported from Hanoi. Since 1997 over 20 varieties were imported from the Netherlands, Korea, Taiwan, in which the seedling of the Netherlands are the highest quality with many different colors. Species: Margaret, Atlas, Debora, Guadra, Orinoco, Red Bull, Lilabella, Sarinah, Samson, Margarita, Mandolin, Moonira, Golden Serena, Tambre, Popov, Maroussia, Jaska, Magnum, Janet, Amarou, Oilila, Miss Rebecca, Rosalin, Marathon. Marmara, Pleasure, Ilcarus, Duella, Essandre, Ave Maria, Thalassa, Viva,...

Gazon d'Olympians, Gerbera jamosonii Bolus et Hook., the Asteraceae commonly called Salem, which are quite popular varieties grown in Da Lat, appropriate planting in spring every year, first appeared in Da Lat 1975. They have many colors like pink, yellow, purple, white, orange,...

Limonium latifolium, Plumbaginaceae were imported to Dalat in 1995, used to decorate with other flowers.

Anthurium sp., the Araceae was the flower often used as an ornamental before 1990 with a wide variety. Since 1995 they have been cultivated for the purpose of cutting branches. Imported in 1999 were some species with many colors and different structures. Flower varieties: Tropical, Safari, Amigo, Neon, Monet, Champion, Midori, Carnaval, Marshall, Dorado, Nexia, Acropolis, Fiorino.

Auspicious flowers (Eustoma grandifolium) is new flowers grown in Da Lat from 1998. In 2005 they were planted on 20 ha with a variety of Sapphire Pink, Purple Avila, Balboa White, Saphire Blue, Saphire White.

4.1.3 Artichoke

Dalat is also famous for its local medicinal plants and artichokes.

Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., they Compositae) is a specialty crop of Da Lat, adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Dalat and with high yield. Many areas in Da Lat growing artichoke include Thai Phien and Sao Nam.

Prior to 1975, the popular species were aitso Gros Vert de times, Violet Hatif. The research on artichoke varieties has also been conducted since 1985. Besides the species cultivated before 1975 which have become the local varieties, in 1992 Dalat Agriculture Department has conducted more tests on new varieties imported from France including Salanquet, Carizou, Violette. The species was released into production.

4.1.4 Fruit trees

Persimmons (Diospyros kaki they Ebenaceae LF) were grown in Da Lat around 1958. The local areas growing more persimmons are wards 3, 4, 9,10,11, Tho Xuan, Xuan Truong.

Currently Dalat has a variety of persimmons with different shapes, colors and fruit quality.

Crunchy, sweet Persimmons: Fuju Banchi, Chira, Matzumoto Fuju Wase, Sanji Maru, Ama Hyakuma, Koshyo,... (Japan).

Sour Persimmons: Hachiya, Hira Tanenashi Yocono, Nishi Suchi, Japan Long Square, Chiro (Japan) Oblong China, China Conical (China), Sakock Si, Tan Sung Si, Si Kichong, Chungda Banshi, Ky Ungean Banshi, Susi (Korea), Fujusi (Australia), Saron (Israel),...

Some persimmon varieties were selected from the persimmon garden that had been cultivated there before.

The main harvest season in Da Lat is from July to October every year. Production of persimmons of about 4500-5000 tons is harvested. Most are eaten fresh; some are processed as dried persimmons, sweetened persimmons and persimmon wine.

Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl., the Rosaceae) were grown on the plateau of Lang Biang when Dankia farm was founded. The plum tree is much cultivated in Ham Farm, Tram Hanh and scattered elsewhere in the city.

Plum varieties before 1975: Green Yunnan, Yunnan Red, local plums, Rine Claude, Rosa Saupa, Formosa, Puneau d'Autriche, Damas,... derived from China, France, Taiwan, Austria.

Around 1995, some farmers took Tam Hoa plums from the north and successfully planted them in Dalat. Tam Hoa plum trees grafted on the peach root brought about good results.

Plums are eaten fresh, made into jam, sauce, wine. The season is from December 3-6 every year.

Peach trees (Prunus persica Stokes, the Rosaceae) have long been grown in Da Lat, there is no region of intensive cultivation, but most localities in the city have grown peaches.

The peach varieties in Da Lat originated from Laos (Vientiane), Yunnan, Nectarine, Florida.

Da Lat’s peach output is not large; peaches are used for eating fresh fruit and jam. Dalat people have practiced the custom of decorating their houses with a branch of peach on (Tet )Lunar New Year’s Days. In August 1997, Bui Van Loi brought Nhat Tan peach varieties to grow in Da Lat for the purpose of exploiting flowers for Tet every year.

Strawberry (Fragaria Ananasssa Z, the Rosaceae) is an important fruit tree of Da Lat.

The species before 1975 derived from France include: Fraisiers de Quatre saisons, Vicomtesse de Thurty Hericart.

Madame Moutot: very large fruit, bright red, pink flesh, less sour, sweet, fragrant, high productivity.

Docteur Morere: A good tree with strong growth and development, with large, round, red fruit, hard and soft flesh, capable of transportation.

There are also varieties from the USA as Latepine Cambridge, Cambridge Favorite, Wiltgourd, Lolano, Shasta, Rival, Vigora, Fresno, Tahara and Lassen.

Species introduced after 1975 were from various sources such as Taiwan, USA, France. The new species of high quality, nice color and fragrance: Selva, Caliso, Sequoita, Fan, Allstars, Ozare, Quinault.

In 1996, Vietnam’s PAC Company had a joint venture with France experimentally grew many varieties of strawberries Angelique, Belrubi, Gorella, Selva, Tarma, Aliso...

In the years 2000-2001, the strawberry-growing households in Da Lat still grew berries without specific origins, referred to as "French berries" or "XuanHuong Strawberries". The varieties are propagated by stems.

In 2001, Da Lat’s Centre for food crops research carried out a selective hybridization and breeding of 30 species on the basis of strawberry varieties planted earlier in Dalat.

Strawberry production area in Da Lat in 2005 reached 110ha, with yields of 1,300 tons.

Different kinds of fruit trees

Besides the above varieties of fruit trees, Dalat also has temperate fruits such as apples, pears. Many varieties of fruit trees were introduced. However, some are not suitable for the local climatic conditions and soil, so the yield and product quality is high. As a result, they are not developed.

Also, some varieties of fruit trees have been experimentally grown in Da Lat: Huong pagoda Apricots, Mediterranean tangerines. These fruit trees grow well with good results in this land.

Some species like Thai guava, Hanoi grapefruit, Nam Roi pomelo, Mexican sapodilla, Indian plum, Australian avocado, seedless oranges, seedless tangerine,... have been experimentally grown and monitored the ability to grow.

Many new varieties of fruit trees have also experimentally cultivated by organizations and individuals, continued to form the selected fruit varieties for Dalat. The experimental cultivation of fruit varieties have been carried out since 1995, and according to the initial assessment ther are over 10 varieties of citrus groups proved suitable for the conditions of Dalat.

4.1.5 Industrial Plants

Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, the Camelliaceae) as industrial trees were first grown in Da Lat in 1922 on the establishment of Cau Dat tea plantation on the scale of 1,000 ha.

Cau Dat tea plantation was first established by the Dutch, in 1930 was assigned to the PIT company (Plantation Indochinoise de The) of France. In 1962 it was transferred to the Vietnam Tea Company.

Cau Dat tea plantation was transferred through several stages and is now under the management of l Lam Dong General Tea Company which implemented equalization in 2005. The area is 245 ha at present.

The tea varieties planted at Cau Dat before 1975: Assam, Shan, Bai Mao, Che Tourane.

The current varieties:

- Assam, Tourane: low yield, about 3-4 tons / ha / year.

- Shan: yield of 6-7 tonnes / ha / year, first planted in 1987-1988.

- Varieties of tea TP14 and LD 97 are the two varieties originating from Bao Loc Center of Tea Seedlings, brought into cultivation in Cau Dat tea factory in 1997. Yield 12-14 tons / ha / year.

- Oolong varieties include: Kim Tuyen, Thuy Ngoc, Tu You, O Long Net... planted by a foreign investment company in 1998 at Truong Xuan. By 2005, O Long tea area reached 214 ha.

Cau Dat Tea is considered very high quality tea, processed into black tea, green tea, high-quality tea (Long O) for export.

Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L., Rubiaceae). Coffee trees were imported and planted in Vietnam around 1850 and began to be planted in the Central Highlands around 1925. In Dalat, coffee trees were planted around 1930. The first localities to plant coffee trees include Truong Xuan, Trai Ham, and then have expanded into other areas.

For coffee, in addition to the traditional varieties, in 1986, new disease-resistant varieties such as Portugual, Catura, Catimore, were selected and imported.

Coffee varities grown in Dalat are:

• Coffee arabica L. var. Typica: To be replaced by higher-quality varieties.

• Coffee arabica L. var. Bourbon: Short trees, strong branching, small seeds, tasty flavour.

• Coffee arabica L. var. Catura: short trees, high yield, tolerance, small seeds, ordinary qualities.

• Coffee arabica L. var. Mokka: small trees, low productivity, but especially delicious favour.

In recent years Catimore coffee strains have been widely planted. They have short trees, the strong branches, large seeds, early harvest time.

In addition to the above varieties of coffee, Da Lat has a local Robusta coffee cultivated in Ta Nung.

Currently, Da Lat has over 3,000 ha of coffee with an annual harvest of about 5,000 tons.

4.1.6 Food crops

Rice: Da Lat does not have a lot of rice cultivation area. The main rice producing areas are Lin Mang (Ward 7) and Ta Nung.

At present the area of rice cultivation in Lin Mang (large field, and small field of ethnic minorities) have been converted to produce vegetables. The areas still produce rice with the traditional rice varieties of ethnic minorities in Ta Nung. Rice varieties of ethnic minorities include: Koi Kon (4 months), Koi Me (6, 7 months). The new rice varieties such as Nhi Uu, Shen Non have been put into production since 1998-2000.

Corn: Corn cultivating area in Da Lat is not large. The corn varieties of ethnic minority people are traditional varieties as glutinous corn. The new varieties such as DK-888, DK-999 have been also widely used since 1995.

Galangal roots in the years 1975-1990 were important food crops, used to get starch, and are hardly grown now.

Sweet potatoes are important local crops in the years 1975-1985. Sweet potatoes were introduced from other regions, including white-fleshed white-skinned potatoes, white-skinned golden-fleshed potatoes, red-skinned yellow-fleshed potatoes, American sweet potatoes, Duong Ngoc purple-fleshed sweet potatoes

Currently sweet potatoes are not widely grown due to low economic value compared with the other plants and are mainly grown on steep hills in the rainy season every year.

4.2. Livestock

4.2.1 Cows

Before 1975, apart from cows that were raised in scattered localities in coastal areas such as Cam Ly (Ward 5), An Binh (Ward 3), polyandry (Ward 7), Camp Ham (Ward 10), Da Lat... there were other breeds imported from abroad:

Jersey cows are dairy cows, approximately 10-15 cows were raised in Ward 9, the level of exploitation of milk per 5-7 liters / head / day. These cattle were imported from France through the Cai San Dairy Center. Jersey Cows are small and raised by the method of grazing.

Dutch purebred cows imported by the Department of Agriculture from Lam Dong Ba Vi Centre were raised by households in wards 7, 8, 9, 10. This is a high yielding dairy cows. From 1983-1989, the herd was 200 -250.

Dutch cows F1 hybrid is the result of Phu Yen yellow cow bred with Dutch Sind. Dutch cows F1 significantly account for the dairy herd of Dalat. Cows were black-and-white or black. Milk yield 10-12 liters / day.

From 2001-2005, with the program for development of dairy farming, Da Lat imported 103 Hostein Freisian cows from Australia and 3 HF cows from the U.S. The milk yield of dairy farming in Dalat this time reached 5800-6000 kg / cow / cycle.

Sind hybrid is the result of hybridization between the local species and Sind. The Sind hybrid improves its stature, adult females weighing more than 200 kg.

4.2.2 Pigs

Investment has been put in improving the quality of pig breeds. Apart from Yorkshire pigs, after 1975, Da Lat added new varieties imported from Ho Chi Minh City such as the Danish Landrace pig breeds, Duroc, Pietrain,... The domestic pigs were included in Dalat in 1978 such as Quang pigs, Mong Ca pigs,...

Before 1975 Yorkshire pigs were kept mainly in farm pigs (Ward 8) and chicken farms Scala. Yorkshire pigs have two breeds: Large White Yorkshire and Middle White Yorkshire. After 1975, livestock breeds are more in Dalat with breed sources from farms in Ho Chi Minh City.

Landrace originated from Denmark was raised in Da Lat after 1975.

Durocis raised with the goal to improve the quality of local pigs. Duroc males are raised to hybridize with Yorkshire and Landrace breeds.

In addition to the exotic breeds, from 1999, Dalat also introduced more high-yielding breeds in 1999-2000 as Pietrain, Pi-York,... to serve for the artificial insemination.

Local pigs also called Quang pigs, originating from Quang Ngai, have been raised since 1976-1990, but because the quality of meat is not high and they have a lot of fat they become less popular.

Mong Cai pigs and I pigs were raised in the year 1976-1982. They were imported from Binh Dinh. The goal is for hybridizatio to improve the breed. They have black hair, long snout, average weight gain.

Apart from the above pig breeds, the ethnic minorities raise local black pig breeds.

4.2.3 Chicken

Before 1975, apart from domestic chicken breeds raised by individual households. The chicken raising farms Scala experimentally raised foreign breeds like Egnia, Babooe, Across, Hubbard, Leghorn, New Hampshire, Rhode Island,... Then in 1975 there were breeds Goldline, Isabrown, Nick Brown, Hy-Line, Tam Hoang, AA, CP-Brown, Luong Phuong,...

Domestic chicken: red yellow feathers, small size, average weight 1.4 to 1.5 kg. A hen lays 40-60 eggs / year.

Tam Hoang chickens imported from the north are China's breed hybridized with chickens in Vietnam. Yellow and red feathers, yellow skin. Average weight from 2.2 to 2.4 kg. A hen lays 80-100 eggs / year.

Leghorn chicken: white feathers, average weight of 1.2 to 1.4 kg. Hens lay 200-210 eggs / year.

New Hampshire chicken originating from the United States. Golden red feathers, white skin. Hens lay 180-200 eggs / year.

Goldline chicken, Isabrown, Nick Brown are chicken with yellow eggs. Dark yellow and red feathers. Yield 200 to 220 eggs / year.

AA Chicken, Hubbard, CP-Brown are meat chicken, after 11 weeks of age weighing 1.6 to 2.2 kg / head.

4.2.4. Rabits

Before 1975, rabbits were raised for the purpose of providing for the research activities of the Pasteur Institute. After 1975, domestic animals become important in the economic structure of households. Raining rabbit thrived in the years 1976-1980.

Rabbits raised in Dalat originated from New Zealand, having thick white fur and red eyes. Adults weigh from 4.5 to 5 kg, giving birth 5-6 times a year.

4.2.5 Horses

Domestic horses: dark-grey and red hair, big bell, small stature, used to pull carts.

Hybrid horses originated from Phu Tho racecourse, and were kept for the purpose of tourism.

5. The Application of Science - Engineering

5.1 Measures to improve land

Before 1975, the scale of agricultural production increased from dozens of ha in 1940 to tens of thousands of hectares of vegetables and flowers in the 1970s, production of Da Lat vegetables adopted many new farming methods into production.

Due to steep topography and strongly split, to prevent erosion and facilitate cultivation, farmers conducted grading for production premises. According to the literature on vegetable flowers in Da Lat, grading the hill into the soil is calculated using the slope, steep slope 10%, the height of land between the two strips is 1.37 m and the width of the land strip is 30 cm. However, in practice, farmers only roughly estimate and level the land strips. With these lands often flooded valley, the open ditch drainage, embankment and planting grass to keep the bank are also implemented.

According to the results of soil analysis, Dalat soil lacks some natural mineral nutrition. Therefore, in the process of cultivation, fertilizers have been used quite a lot. At first, different types of manure have been used widely in cultivation of vegetables. The new land backing down over the past few crops were also applied from the year 1970 to improve the farmland.

Since 1975, measures to improve land, using organic fertilizers, manure.

5.2 Research on cultivation techniques

The early production of vegetables in Dalat for a long time relied on the experience of immigrants from northern and central regions.

Before 1975, studies on the production of Da Lat vegetables were conducted mostly by Dalat’s Center for Experimental Flowers and Vegetables, but mostly focused on the breed. The farming practices have not been emphasized. The techniques applied in this stage were mainly changes of production tools from primitive to mechanized.

Evaluation Report on the potato diseases in the highlands and the proposed solutions in 1965 identified the bacteria Corynebacterium sepedonicum; Pseudomonas solanacearum to cause wilt, brown leaf spot disease caused by Alternaria solani ; burnt leaf disease caused by Erwinia phytophtora foot or Bacillus atrosepticus, skin potato scab caused by Streptomyces scaboes, leaf blights caused by Phytophtora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani bacterial diseases, nematodes, diseases (nematodes),... The report also suggested some measures to cope with the pathological situation such as potato seed disinfection, sterilization cutting, soil removal, seed selection, planting rotation, storage methods.

Report on experimental planting onions in Vietnam by Chinese experts with the Texas Early Grano-502 seed, Granex, Excel Bermuda 986, Crystal White Wax selected appropriate speciesTexas Early Grano-502 Granex. The report also mentioned experimental techniques of sowing seeds, planting technique and storing products.

According to the report on strawberry survey in 1967, Da Lat had species of Madame Moutot, Docteur Morere. The varieties were being experimented in Da Lat Flower Vegetable Center. They included Latepine Cambridge, Cambridge Favorite, Wiltgourd, Torrey Jine, Solano, Shasta, Rival, Vigora, Fresno, Tahara, Florida, and Lassen.

Later in 1975, at Da Lat vegetable seedling Center, empirical research on plant varieties and testing new farming practices were deployed widely to many agencies involved.

The technique of plant tissue culture was done in Da Lat in 1978. By 2000, this technique has become an important technique in the supply of plant varieties and disease-free agricultural area of Dalat. According to statistics, in 2005, Da Lat had 28 laboratories of plant tissue culture by the establishment of scientific research and breeding base of private investors with 127 tissue box. Every year, the basis of this tissue has provided the market in Da Lat with 6 million seedlings after a clean test tube disease.

In 1988-1990, a research program to study the artichoke aims to develop the medicinal plant specialties of Dalat.

In 1995, research on the production of safe vegetables in the city of Da Lat was conducted with the pilot production program at Lat commune (Luoyang). From 1996 to 2001, a research program on production of commercial high-quality vegetables, consistent with safe vegetable standards of FAO / WHO, has been successfully deployed in Dalat and has built the production process of safe vegetables in Dalat for the main species of Da Lat vegetables (cabbages, Chinese cabbages, potatoes, carrots, peas, spinach, celery, leeks). The program was performed under the direction of Lam Dong province with the participation of the following agencies: Department of Science, Technology and Environment, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of Lam Dong, Food Plant Research Centre, Center for Applied Agricultural Engineering, Da Lat Department of Agriculture and Rural Development.

Da Lat city invested in research to establish the production process of short-term local flowers as chrysanthemum, carnation (1997-1998), the production process of rose, gladiolus, lilies (1999), the process of growing orchids Leopard (1998).

In 2003, research to model the direction of industrial production was done by the Research Center for potatoes, vegetables and flowers in coordination with the Agricultural Center of Dalat.

In parallel with research programs and applying the new farming process, the technical application of vegetable production in the sheltered housed, watering techniques according to the new methods (seepage irrigation, drip,...) technical use of fertilizers and fertilizing methods and safe techniques of using plant-protecting chemicals, IPM prevention programs, techniques of raising livestock and poultry in the direction of High-tech, eco-environmental protection has been applied in the agricultural areas of Dalat.

6. Operation of Cooperative Organizations

6.1 The period before 1975

During the development of Da Lat vegetable production, to support farmers in business and consumption of vegetables, the former government allowed a vegetable cooperative to be founded in Da lat.

Da Lat vegetable cooperative established on 23-1-1958 for the purpose of gathering and putting the gardens in an organization to protect the interests in terms of the price of vegetables and provision of materials for agricultural production, eliminating middlemen in the form of commercial or private enterprise.

During operation, the Da Lat vegetable cooperative union agreed to ensure the interests of growers in Da Lat as:

• The Cooperative reserves the right to purchase vegetables produced by farmer-members of the cooperative. This aims to eliminate the middleman in place.

• The Cooperative sells vegetables directly to the owner of trucks at the price determined by the cooperative. The transportation and trade in the market is the right of the truck owner.

• The Cooperative has a branch in Saigon, which is the trading place of the cooperative.

However, the above agreement was valid only in 1958, then the state purchase and sales of Da Lat vegetables came to a standstill due to many reasons but most importantly the problem of inconsistency in practice was the members of the cooperative.

Besides Da Lat vegetable cooperative, some other cooperatives were formed.

Thanh Mau Agricultural Cooperative formed and operated for a short time and then stopped as the Managing Board had no executive experience.

Da Thien - Nghe Tinh Agricultural Cooperative formed with the goal of establishing 60 stalls selling vegetables for their members, constructing cold storage stocks of agricultural products, contracting directly with the supermarket without a middle commercial agent. However, in the process of organizing activities, the cooperative stopped at the business of fertilizers, agricultural farm equipments and supply of seedlings for its members. The projected sales and consumption of agricultural products were not implemented.

Overall, during this time there was no organization that supported the farmers in the vegetable business.

6.2 The period after 1975

Since 1975, agricultural production in Da Lat, as mentioned, went into the centered planning mode. In the years 1976-1980, the agricultural cooperation was implemented vigorously.

In the period 1975-1985, the production method according to centralized plan, the area cultivating and harvesting crop output was allocated and purchased under the State plan. Due to the volatility of the society, to 1984, there were only 9 Dalat agricultural cooperatives, 65 production groups 65 and 5 solidarity groups with 3082 households and 5,738 workers.

In 1977, 147 production groups and a collective were founded (Tu Duc). Agricultural production was done under the plan to each residential clusters, the purchase of vegetables was undertaken by the Agriculture and Food Company and the Foreign Trade Company.

In 1978, an agricultural cooperative, 7 vegetable production groups and 6 productions units were established with 3,586 households cultivating 1,076 ha of vegetables, 179 hectares of food crops. Six food production groups were also founded with 479 households cultivating 171 ha of arable land in the new economic zones.

In May 9 1979, farming corporations and cooperatives were formed in all the agricultural regions. During this time, Da Lat formed three agricultural cooperatives, 81 production groups and 9 solidarity groups with 5962 agricultural households and 28,118 inhabitants (8989 employees) cultivating and managing 1,899 ha of vegetables with 140 tractors, 1,873 oil-operated pumps, fuel-operated pumps 1106, and 110 engines.

In 1984, Da Lat had 65 production groups, nine cooperatives and 5 solidarity groups with 3,082 households and 5,738 employees.

The organization of production under the subsidy revealed certain weaknesses due to centralized management. In 1988, the production groups as well as agricultural cooperatives in the area of Da Lat city almost shut down and disbanded themselves, and most productive land has been contracted to individual households. By this time Dalat had 9 agricultural cooperatives, 46 production groups, 13 solidarity groups with 3,572 households and 5,876 employees cultivating and managing 562 ha of vegetables.

The agricultural cooperation program in the period 1975-1988 achieved certain results such as construction of power projects, irrigation, transportation by the mode of public and private partnership; some social welfare projects such as kindergartens, cultural houses were also built.

In 1997, Da Lat had 9 cooperatives in agricultural production, but most of them did not work, the production groups self-disintegrated. According to statistics, Da Lat then had a total of nine cooperatives in agricultural production.

Implementing the new Cooperative Law and Resolution 03 of the Provincial Committee of Lam Dong on the construction and development of economic cooperation, by the end of 1999 two cooperatives re-registered (Cooperative Tu Duc, Ward 11 and cooperative Da Thien, Ward 8), another cooperative was dissolved (Cooperative Anshan, Ward 4).

To continue the, in 2000 four new agricultural service cooperatives were established (HTX Lac Thanh, Phu Thinh Cooperative, Cooperative Coffee Xuan Truong Thien Nam Cooperative). The old cooperatives continue to conduct dissolving proceedings according to law.

The new and converted cooperatives began to establish new operational mechanisms of market economy. However, in the process of implementation of agricultural services, some cooperatives fail to comply with the ordinances and principles of accounting, statistics, and did not adapt to the operation of market mechanisms, not change their operation modes for proper performance; hence did not reach the goal set in the original plan. By the end of 2001 three cooperatives had to be dissolved.

According to the census on rural areas, agriculture and fishery in 2001, Da Lat had four agricultural cooperatives (cooperative Lac Thanh, Phuoc Thanh Cooperative, Cooperative Tu Duc, Da Thien cooperative) with 621 members, the total capital of 3.1 billion (on average, each cooperative 775 million), in which the equity is 1.74 billion. The total value of products sold during the year was 954 million (an average of 238 million per a cooperative), cooperative interest of 109 million (an average of 27.2 million per a cooperative).

With regard to the business enterprises in the agricultural sector, in 2001 the city of Da Lat had 18 operating companies, including three state-owned enterprises, a joint-stock companies with State capital, two joint-stock enterprises without State capital, five limited liability company, a private enterprise, and 6 units with 100% foreign capital. The scope of enterprises includes 15 enterprises cultivating crops, two livestock enterprises, and one service enterprise. The total number of employees in these 18 enterprises was 700 employees.

On May 9 2002, Da Lat Vegetable Association was founded with 92 members registered as members in the fields of fruit and vegetable production, processing and agribusiness in the area of Da Lat and the surrounding areas. The purpose of Da Lat vegetable Association’s activities was to stably develop the industry in the field of production and consumption of agricultural products, cooperate and support each other to maintain and improve the quality of agricultural products, cooperatively study the plant structure suitable with the climate and soil in Da Lat and the requirements of the market aims to diversify products and stabilize production, expand markets, to protect the legal rights of the members, as well as perform the state obligations, share and support each other in difficulties.

On May 10 2006, under Decision No. 2885/QD-UBND dating on October 9 2006 of Lam Dong province, Da Lat Flower Association was established with 84 members. The purpose of the association is to stabilize, develop the manufacture and consumption of flower products, protect the legitimate interests of the association's members, to perform their obligations to the State, share and support each other in the work. Activities include mainly manufacturing and trading flower products and services related to flower products, and coordinate research to diversify products, stabilize production and expand the market, debate and plan the development of production and consumption of flower products. The Association's scope of activities is across the province of Lam Dong.

7. Operation of Farm Economy

In Dalat, in the years 1950-1960 the mode of farm economy was formed by migrants from different areas of the country move here to set up the estate for specialty crops and raising livestock of which the scale and number was not large.

After 1975, besides the farm, agricultural enterprises (nationalized economy), agricultural cooperatives (collective economy) there were still old private estates.

In 1988, the impact of market economy helped the agricultural household conditions to expand the production scale, forming new farms and growing faster than the old estates. Today, the farms in the state-owned economic sector no longer exist, but there are mainly farms belonging to the private sector.

According to report on the results of the census on rural area, agriculture and aqua-culture in 2001, Da Lat had 14 farms belonging to wards 3, 4, 7, 8, 12 and Xuan Truong, of which there were three flower farms and 11 livestock farms. The total farm labor in these 14 farms was 84 people. The total investment of these farms was 5.68 billion (of which the farms’ captical accounted for 85.3%), on average each farm invested 406 million. The total value of goods sold during the year reached 3.6 billion. The total income was 797 million; the average income per farm was 56.9 million / year.

Due to natural conditions, in Dalat there is limit of the area of arable land, obtained largely by forest clearance and transferred among farmers. Others received land and forests and make use of low-lying areas between streams for production. Therefore, in order to develop the land and the potential increase in income, the farm owners in Da Lat have focused on intensive cultivation, science and technology, made good use of the land area to plant special value plants and trees, combined with livestock, poultry and organized various types of processing after harvest the products to enhance the value of commodities.

The farm owners in Dalat come from many different economic sectors, with the education level from Secondary education to university and college education, having the ability to manage and organize production and business, the ability to acquire and apply science and technology, and farming experience in each type of plant, animal they cultivate.

As regards division of labor on the farms, the farm owner functions both as

manager and directly involved in labor. The number of regular workers on farms is mainly family labor, some hired employees are paid daily or according to the contract. The contract between farm owners and workers are mainly oral contract and few cases of dispute occur.

Funds invested initially put into production at the farm business cannot meet requirements for production development. Investment capital sources are mainly accumulated by households. Material and technical basis and work methods are mainly handmade and half-handmade. In recent years, a small number of farms began to equip modern irrigation systems and small mechanical milling machines, spraying pesticides, grinding mills.

Farm-made products currently depend on the changes of the market, which is often unstable and has a huge impact on the farming activities and agricultural processing.

At present, the economic farm model in Dalat which develops steadily and efficiently include small-scale and medium-scale household farms. This model matches the capacity of the household management, capital investment as well as rationally solves the problem of consumption and mitigates risks in production and business activities.

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